History of Endoscopy
Endoscopes have come
a long way! ...
|The first true
endoscope was designed and built by German physician Phillip
Bozzini in 1805.
It was called the lichtleiter (light
conductor) and consisted of various examining tubes, including a
special cannula for the urethra and bladder, plus a wax candle
in a special holder or cradle for illumination. While
rudimentary, the lichtleiter did allow direct visual
examination of various internal body cavities, including the
bladder, which was not otherwise possible at that time.
Unfortunately, the device was harshly ridiculed by Bozzini's
medical contemporaries, which effectively halted endoscopic
development for almost 50 years.
In 1853, French surgeon Antonin Jean Desormeaux used a
modified lichtleiter to examine patients primarily for
urological problems. A system of mirrors and lenses improved
visualization. Instead of a wax candle, he used a much brighter
lamp flame from a burning mixture of alcohol and turpentine as a
light source, which unfortunately resulted in numerous burns.
Nevertheless, this version of the lichtleiter was
considered reasonably successful.
The first electrically illuminated endoscope was made by
Gustave Trouve in 1869. It used an electrical current to create
illumination from a white-hot, glowing, platinum wire and had
the light source at the distal tip of the instrument. His
polyscope electrique used a rheostat to regulate the
electrical current from a battery to adjust the light intensity.
It was not very successful as a cystoscope because of heat
production, LIMITED duration of battery life, and the need for a
dry environment, but it was a start.
German physician Maximilian Nitze designed the first
successful modern cystoscope in 1877 and is credited as the
father of cystoscopy. Built by Josef Leiter of Vienna and used
exclusively for bladder examinations, it also used incandescent
lighting provided by an electrically heated platinum wire;
however, it added a cooling system of flowing ice water and
telescopic lenses for visualization, which solved many of the
problems with earlier instruments.
A Gastroscope by Dr. Schindler, its
tip has a light bulb attached
|The Birth of American Urological Instrumentation Most of
the early work in the development of urological instrumentation
in America was done by urologists, in collaboration with Mr.
Reinhold H. Wappler, founder of American Cystoscope Makers, Inc.
(A.C.M.I.®). Mr. Wappler, a skilled maker of medical and
electrosurgical apparatuses, emigrated from Germany to the
United States in 1890. Today, he is considered the founder of
the diagnostic instrument industry.
In the early decades of the twentieth century, American
urologists were dependent entirely on cystoscopes brought over
from Germany and Austria. Difficulties in communication, long
waits, and the high cost of repair prompted noted urologists to
seek the assistance of Reinhold Wappler. Soon, other doctors
also sought out Mr. Wappler for the repair, and eventually, the
manufacturing of urology instrumentation. Working closely with
these leading urologists, Mr. Wappler produced an extraordinary
number of diagnostic, therapeutic, and auxiliary instruments. He
was granted the first U.S. patents for cystoscopes and optics,
and for more than three decades, A.C.M.I.® Corporation was the
largest and best source of urological instruments in the United
A McCARTHY visual system with No. 68A telescope. Made
by AMERICAN CYSTOSCOPE MAKERS®
(WAPPLER) In original wooden box. circa: 1920
A.C.M.I.® F5-A Gastro Duodenoscope
WELCH ALLYN VIDEO ENDOSCOPES
MODEL 8600 PROCESSOR /
81200 VIDEO GASTROSCOPE
One of the First U.S. Manufacturers of Video Endoscope Systems on the
requires Adobe Acrobat
Here is an
original Olympus® Gastro
Camera introduced in the 1950's !
Distal End with Camera Flash and Image lens, the
Film is 5mm you had to load in yourself!
into this Olympus®
Also this GTF-A
CLICK IMAGES SEE ORIGINAL GASTROCAM SETS AND INFO!
Olympus® EF 1969
Gastro Camera info©
Here is what
Gastroenterologists had to use to view Gastro photos!
Olympus® GT-PR-2 Slide film
Click above for
NOT TO LONG
Photos were taken with a "POLAROID" camera ....
Here are some
early Endoscopy Patents:
more endoscopy info from the #1 manufacturer of
VINTAGE GASTRO CAM GTF-A
GT-PR-2 Slide film viewer
Click Price to order online >:
Pentax® Endoscopy Timeline©
Fujinon® Endoscopy Timeline©
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